Referencing

You must acknowledge all the sources of information you have used in your assignments and research papers using an appropriate referencing style.

Referencing guides for printing or downloading

Harvard is an author-date referencing style widely accepted in scholarly circles. Each reference is indicated in the text by the author and date of the publication cited, sometimes with added information, such as page numbers. The full details of these references are listed at the end of the text in a Reference list. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

Recent updates to the guide 

We've recently updated the RMIT Harvard printable guide, which is one of the main citing and referencing guides used at RMIT. The changes are based on the Referencing and Attribution section of the Australian Government Style Manual (AGSM), released in 2021.

RMIT Harvard Referencing Guide - key changes

This video outlines the five key differences between the updated RMIT Harvard referencing guide and the previous version. (2:10 mins.)

APA is an author-date referencing style produced by the American Psychological Association. Initially developed for the social sciences, it is used by a number of disciplines. There have been several editions of the Publication Manual, the aim of which is to aid authors in the preparation of manuscripts. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

The above APA guide is based on the latest, 7th edition of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association published in 2020.

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Vancouver is a numbered referencing style that is predominantly used in the medical field. It follows rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It is also known as: Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Each source is given the same number each time it is referred to in the work. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

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Chicago is a referencing style developed by the University of Chicago. It offers two different systems of referencing, Chicago A: Notes and Bibliography, and Chicago B: Author-Date. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing. Easy Cite now includes examples for both Chicago A and B 17th ed. 

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The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) citation style is a numbered referencing style used in electrical, electronic and computing publications. IEEE provides instructions for authors for each type of publication such as journals, magazines, newsletters, and standards. References are numbered in the order of appearance in the article, not in alphabetical order. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

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The Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) is a required referencing style for students enrolled in the Juris Doctor program at RMIT University. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.


The AGLC 4th edition (2018) is published by the Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc. in collaboration with the Melbourne Journal of International Law Inc.

The MLA referencing style was developed by the Modern Languages Association of America (MLA). The organisation was founded in 1883, when modern languages were beginning to gain a place in the curriculum alongside the classical languages – ancient Greek and Latin. The MLA Handbook originated over fifty years ago being first published as the “MLA Style Sheet” in 1951.

The MLA Style Center is a free companion to the MLA Handbook. You can submit your own questions, get instructions on formatting research papers and use tools for creating works-cited-list entries.

Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

What is referencing?

Why use referencing in academic writing? This short video introduces why you must use references, the dangers of plagiarism, and the different ways to use referencing in your writing through direct quotes, paraphrasing, and using a reference list. (video 3:25 mins.)

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Acknowledgement of Country

RMIT University acknowledges the people of the Woi wurrung and Boon wurrung language groups of the eastern Kulin Nation on whose unceded lands we conduct the business of the University. RMIT University respectfully acknowledges their Ancestors and Elders, past and present. RMIT also acknowledges the Traditional Custodians and their Ancestors of the lands and waters across Australia where we conduct our business - Artwork 'Luwaytini' by Mark Cleaver, Palawa.